The aim of this essay is to identify previous educational ‘top down project ‘such as the, Global Citizenship Education (GCED) and to highlight whether constructing schools in order to teach Western values with an underlying view to dispel possible future ‘anti-Western sentiment.
In contrast the essay will proceed to explore how a bottom up approach, that is to say, an intervention from an impartial charity, ‘Jump for Bread’ without a political agenda with a central premise, to provide children with a non-colonial education, increase nutrition, reduce illiteracy, provide safe healthcare for every child and therefore independence and therefore “self-actualistion” (Maslow)
Essentially Globalization refers to the speeding up of all movements and exchanges. This may include human beings, technology, goods, services, capital, or cultural practices. Global citizenship refers to a sense of belonging to a broader community and common humanity. It emphasises political, economic, social and cultural interdependence and interconnectedness between the local, the national and global. Given the compelling necessity to tackle critical global challenges such as the prevalent trends of growing intolerance and violent extremism, global citizenship is a fundamental aspect of a necessary approach to living together.
One of its many purposes is to challenge and spread what many, but not all, regard as desirable universal values, including improved human rights, gender equality, cultural diversity, tolerance, and environmental sustainability.
Therefore, in order to reduce anti extremist views a project began known as the, Global Citizenship Education (GCED) it hoped to build towards normatively desirable universal values and responsibilities. GCED was identified as a priority in the 2006 Report of the United Nations Alliance of Civilisations (UNAOC) High-level Group (HLG). The High-level Group identified GCED as a key way to strengthen multiculturalism and to achieve an improved understanding among individuals from different cultural and religious backgrounds.
Seeking to advance these objectives, GCED set up schools and took on what they called a multifaceted approach, employing concepts and methodologies already applied in other areas, including human rights education, peace education, education for sustainable development and education for international understanding’ (UNESCO 2014,p. 15). GCED focused on the long term: a lifelong learning perspective, from early childhood, through all levels of education, continuing into adulthood. GCED required ‘formal and informal approaches, curricular and extracurricular interventions, and conventional and unconventional pathways to participation’ (UNESCO 2014).
Conversely, according to the US Government a civil society must work together to make these objectives both meaningful and attractive via the formal educational system and various entities, such as faith-based or efforts should be assisted by the knowledge that the UN’s 4th Sustainable Development Goal is: to ‘Ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning, so as to ensure that by 2030 all learners acquire knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including among others through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development’ (‘Sustainable Development Goal 4’).
As previously mentioned, an impartial charity such as Jump for Bread which takes a bottom up approach would be more fruitful. Their aim is to provide education for every child with a non-colonial curriculum. Furthermore, they understand the importance of nutrition, therefore unlike the project provided by the UNAOC, they intend to intervene at a wholistic level. That is to say, provide nutritious school meals on arrival to school, for lunch and break.
This of course has many benefits for the community as it raises opportunities of incomes for others such as jobs. Many children arriving to school each morning may have walked many miles and not eaten very much the night before. Having not eaten is not simply a choice, it is due to extreme poverty, not a lack of income for one week but resources such as sustainable livelihoods, food, clothing, clean water, and shelter.
Poverty has many detrimental outcomes for children, hunger leads to malnutrition, ill health, limited or a lack of access to education. When children are raised in poverty they suffer from fatigue as their body reserves energy in order to survive. Thus, the child often drops out of school and psychologically, frequently suffer from low self-esteem. Biologically, permeant damage is caused both long and short term such as skeletal shrinking and damage to the frontal cortex of the brain, which is where the executive functioning takes place that is, one’s ability to examine consequences, think above basic levels. (2009).
Unless interventions such as that proposed by ‘Jump
for Bread’ One Child dropping out of school becomes too many as an entire
family dynamic becomes affected. Similar to a domino effect the morale of an
absolute community thus the cycle of poverty perpetuates.
- Elliott K . 2009. Lipids,Malnutrition and the Developing Brain, published by Wiley.
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